Traffic Calming

Family walking with dog down sidewalk

Appendix A - Application Form

Appendix B - Speed Control Information Sheet

Appendix C - Speed Control Petition

Appendix D - Contact Resident' Instruction Sheet

Appendix E - Verification Statement

Appendix F - Sample Study Area

Appendix G - List of Potential Traffic Studies

Appendix H - Sample Public Information Centre Notification

Background

Traffic conditions on residential streets can greatly affect the livability of neighbourhoods. When streets are safe and pleasant, quality of life is enhanced. Neighbourhood residents are concerned with a variety of issues such ad traffic volumes, vehicle speeds and the safety of pedestrians, cyclists and motorists. To help alleviate residents' concerns, the City of Thorold (referred to as the City) initiated neighbourhood traffic management programs.

Neighbourhood traffic calming measures are implemented to resolve traffic and safety problem on residential streets. Neighbourhood traffic calming involves altering motorist behaviour on a single street or on a portion of a street network: It is the combination of mainly physical measures that reduce the negative effects of motor vehicle use, alter drive behaviour and improve conditions for non-motorized street users.

Full-scale traffic calming projects generally tend to be expensive and take considerable time to develop. As such, for local residential streets and some residential collector streets a simpler and effective solution may be to introduce speed control measures on these streets.

Effective speed control measures include primarily the use of speed humps with the use of traffic circles in some situations. Speed control measures not only reduce vehicular speeds but they can also help discourage non-local traffic form traveling through a neighbourhood on residential streets which reduces traffic volumes. Also, in conjunction with speed humps, All-Way Stop Control (AWSC) measure may be considered at the intersection of two residential collectors. Based on the City's past experience, AWSC signs on their own, without additional speed control measures are generally not effective.

The purpose of this policy is to provide guidelines for initiating, reviewing and implementing the speed control program. Residents that directly abut a roadway where speeding problems exist should be able to have a forum to participate in providing input on solutions for their streets. As such, this policy also outlines the mandatory neighbourhood support needed for approving speed control installation and provides a procedure for public input. This policy will help to ensure that speed control measures are installed only in appropriate locations where they will increase safety levels and livability in the City of Thorold and provide the most benefit.

Speed Humps

Speed humps are physical traffic calming measure and are appropriate for local and residential collector street that have high traffic speeds, but relatively low traffic volumes. Speed humps are asphalt mounds eight (8) centimetres in height and are approximately four (4) metres in length (in the direction of travel) for both local and residential collector streets. A seven (7) metres long speed hump will be considered under special circumstances (i.e. on main bus/emergency routes).

Speed humps are usually designed to encourage vehicular crossing speeds of 30 to 40 km/h and are intended to produce sufficient discomfort to vehicles crossing at higher speeds; speed humps limit travel speeds yet allow the driver to maintain vehicle control. Its design is intended to limit effects on emergency, and transit vehicles while allowing cyclists to comfortably cross it. Speed humps have evolved from extensive research and testing and have been designed to achieve a specific result on vehicle operations without imposing unreasonable or unacceptable safely risks.

Speed bumps, on the other hand, are the same height as speed humps however their travel length is much shorter (0.2 to 1 metre). Speed bumps result in abrupt vertical motion at slow speeds and encourage most drivers to drive less than 10 km/h. speed bumps are widely used in private parking lots, are not legal on public streets and do not tend to exhibit consistent design parameters from one installation to another unlike speed humps.

The cost to construct speed humps, including the installation of the signs, pavement markings and maintenance is approximately $ 5000.00 per speed hump.

Advantages of Speed Humps

Vehicle Speeds: Research into the effect of speed humps on vehicular speeds consistently shows that speed humps are an effective tool in reducing travel speeds on local and collector streets.

Traffic Volumes: While speed reduction is their primary benefit, speed humps may also have the effect of reducing traffic volumes, thereby reducing the amount of short-cutting traffic on a roadway.

Collision Rates: Research has shown that speed hump installation can reduce collision frequency.

Traffic Noise: Traffic noise may be reduced due to lower speeds.

Speed Humps Have No Effect On: Resident access, on- street parking, street sweeping and police enforcement.

Disadvantages of Speed Humps

Impact to Parallel Streets: Some traffic may be diverted onto parallel streets that do not have speed humps.

Traffic Noise: Residents may notice increased noise due to braking and accelerating at the speed humps and from loose objects in the back of vehicles. Also there could be increased noise due to heavy vehicles going over the speed humps.

Aesthetics: Pavement markings and signage could detract from street appearance.

Emergency Response Time: Emergency vehicles could be delayed 1 to 15 seconds per speed hump. Should emergency response time become negatively impacted due to speed humps, consideration could be given to use of split speed humps or speed cushions to improve emergency response time.

Transit: Passengers, especially disabled or elderly passengers, may feel discomfort while traveling over the speed humps.

Maintenance: Snow clearing time may be increased. Speed humps interfere with pavement overlays.

 

Goals and Objectives

The Speed Control Program should be undertaken in consideration of the following goals:

  • Enhance the quality of life and livability in City of Thorold neighbourhoods through the use of traffic management measure, such as speed humps, that reduce or control the impact of vehicle traffic;
  • Change the culture of neighbourhood street use from ‘cars first' to people first;
  • Create neighbourhood environments that support and encourage the use of non-auto modes of travel such as cycling, walking and transit; and
  • Change the culture of neighbourhood street use from ‘cars first' to people first';
  • Develop a transportation system that recognizes and accommodates to the greatest extent possible, the multitude that take place along the roadway.

The process should involve:

  • Public consultation and input in all aspects of the process;
  • A process that is fair, balanced and equitable and reflect the needs of all users; and
  • A process that reflects the City of Thorold funding capabilities.

Specific objectives of the Speed Control Program are to:

  • Improve safety and convenience for all users of the streets;
  • Reduce the number and severity of collisions;
  • Reduce the volume and/or speed of motorized traffic;
  • Reduce the volume of traffic that has neither its origin or destination within the residential neighbourhood;
  • Minimize effects on the adjacent or nearby local residential streets; and
  • Reduce motor vehicle emissions.

Role of Other Departments and Agencies

There are a number of other City of Thorold departments and external organizations that may require involvement in the process, including:

  • City of Thorold
  • Operations Department
  • By-law – Parking Enforcement – St. Catharines Transit (Buses)
  • Fire Department
  • Regional Police
  • Ambulance Services

Depending on the nature and location of the affected community, the following agencies or groups may also require involvement:

  • Niagara Region
  • Ministry of Transportation of Ontario
  • Thorold District School Boards.

City staff should act as study facilitators and resource persons.

 

Appropriate Streets for Speed Control Measures

The purpose of the speed control program is to restore streets to their intended function. This function is to provide both mobility and accessibility, but in differing combinations, depending

on the specific location and classification of the street. One of the primary reasons speed humps are installed is to increase motorists' awareness of the street's function and thereby reduce vehicular speeds.

The primary function of local residential streets is to provide access to adjacent properties. Local streets are not intended for use as through routes or as important links to move traffic within an area's overall road network. For residential collector streets, access to adjacent properties is balanced by a need to collect and distribute residential traffic traveling into and out of a neighbourhood. As with local residential streets, residential collector streets are generally not intended to be through routes or to move significant volumes of traffic within the road network.

The following definitions were used in determining road classifications to ensure that speed control measures are installed primarily on local streets and may be considered on residential collector streets:

Arterial Street

Service Function – Arterial streets are intended to carry large volumes of all type of traffic moving at medium to high speeds. These streets serve the major traffic flows between the principal areas of traffic generation and also connect to rural arterials and collectors. In urban areas without freeways, arterial streets provide the best quality of traffic service. Arterial streets normally experience average daily traffic volumes of 5,000-30,000 vehicles.

Flow Characteristics – The traffic flow is desirably uninterrupted except at signalized intersections and cross walks. Where signals are closely spaced they should be interconnected and synchronized to minimize the interference to through movements. Parking and unloading should be prohibited where they might affect through movement of traffic, particularly at peak hours.

Example – Collier Road

Major Collector Street

Service Function – Collector streets provide both traffic service and land access. The traffic service function of this type of street is to carry traffic between local and arterial streets. Full access to adjacent properties is generally allowed on collectors. The average daily traffic ranges between 5,000 to12,000 vehicles.

Flow Characteristics – Major collector streets have stop, yield or signalized controls where they intersect more important streets. There are few parking restrictions expect during peak hours when traffic movement may be the most important consideration. There are generally no special pedestrian crossing restrictions, but special crosswalks might be provided where traffic volumes are high. To improve traffic flow, particularly at peak hours, it is sometimes desirable to provide major collector streets with bus bays or turning lanes similar to those provided on arterial streets.

Example – Richmond Street

Residential Collector Street

Service Function – Collector streets provide both traffic service and land access. The traffic service function of this type of street is to carry traffic between local and arterial streets. Full access to adjacent properties is generally allowed on collectors. The average daily traffic ranges between 1,000 and 5,000 vehicles.

Flow Characteristics – Residential collector streets have stop, yield or signalized controls where they intersect more important streets. There are few parking restrictions expect during peak hours when traffic movement may be the most important consideration. There are generally no special pedestrian crossing restrictions.

Example – Confederation Avenue

Local Street

Service Function – The main function of local streets is to provide land access. Direct access is allowed to all abutting properties. Local streets are not intended to move large volumes of traffic. The local street primarily carries only traffic with an origin or destination along its length. It is not intended to carry through traffic other that to immediately adjoining streets.

Flow Characteristics – Local streets have stop, yield or signalized controls where they intersect more important streets. Parking may be restricted to one side on narrow streets. Pedestrian traffic is unrestricted.

Example – Silver Crest Count

 

Speed Control Request Process

The following provides a step by step process for the initiation of a speed control request.

Step 1: Application Form

The requesting resident to neighbourhood association (‘Contact Resident') completes a speed control Application Form (included in Appendix A) providing street location and limits for their request. This form may either be mailed or faxed to the ‘Contact Resident' (who must live on the street for which they are marking the request). The form includes his/her address, phone number and reason for their request. The City will then confirm receipt of the Application Form via mail, email or fax.

Council, at their discretion, may initiate a speed control study. Whenever possible, it is preferable that a person who lives on the street be the “Contact Resident' for a Council initiated study.

 

Step 2: Initial Criteria

Upon receipt of the Application Form, the City will investigate whether or not the requested street meets the Initial Criteria before proceeding any further in the speed control request process. In most cases the only applicable speed control measure will be the use of speed humps, therefore the initial criteria are based on requirements for speed hump installation. The requested street shall be considered for speed control installation when a location meets all of the Initial Criteria listed below:

  • Road Classification: Requested streets should primarily be local streets (but residential collector streets may be considered) which are under the jurisdiction of the City of Thorold.
  • Emergency Access: Speed humps requests on local street will likely result in minimal impact on emergency response time, however if the requested street is a residential collector street, fire, police and ambulance services must be involved in the process for possiblespeed hump installation. Speed humps are not recommended for use on main emergency routes or on a street with an emergency facility.
  • Transit: If requested street is a transit route, transit must support potential speed hump installation. Seven (7) metres speed humps can be used on transit route, except where articulated buses are used, due to potential decoupling.
  • Zoning: The requested street should be predominantly residential in nature.
  • Paved: The requested street must be paved and maintained by the City.
  • Intersections: Speed humps should be located at least 30 metres from intersections for local and residential collector streets.
  • Speed Limit: Posted or legal speed limit must be less than or equal to 50 km/h.
  • Vertical Grade: Speed humps may be installed on street section with a grade equal to or less that 5%. The installation of speed humps on street section with a grade greater than 5% must be based on an engineering evaluation to assure that the installation will not create inappropriate risk to traffic safely. Speed humps shall not be installed on streets with grades greater that 8%.
  • Street Block Length: The requested street length must exceed 150 metres.
  • Traveled Lanes: Speed humps are ideal on streets with 2 or less lanes of traffic. They may be installed on one-way streets. Speed humps shall be constructed so that they cover the entire width of the street surface, with a small gap at the curb to allow for drainage.
  • Heavy Vehicles: Percentage of heavy vehicles (trucks, school buses) most not exceed 5% of the total volume of traffic.

All streets that do not meet the speed control initial criteria will not be considered any further for speed control installation.

Step 3: Information Package

If the City determines that the requested location meets the Initial Criteria, Speed humps will then be considered on that particular street and a Speed Control Information Package will be mailed to the ‘Contact Resident' which includes.

  • Speed Control Information (included in Appendix B)
  • Speed Control Petition (included in Appendix C)
  • ‘Contact Resident' Instruction Sheet (included in Appendix D)
  • Verification Statement (included in Appendix E)

Step 4: Community Support Procedure

Installing speed control measure in a community can be met by resistance from residents, thus community support and involvement are important for increasing awareness of speed humps and creating an atmosphere of acceptance and ownership. By explaining the full context, setting residents' expectations appropriately, and discussing the potential benefits and dis-benefits of speed humps, consensus on the most appropriately treatment for the neighbourhood is more likely achievable.

After determining if the requested street meets the ‘Initial Criteria', the City Of Thorold must ensure that property owners, residents and business owners are engaged in the process and in support of the installation of speed control before conducting extensive traffic studies.

At least 51% (a simple majority) of the households must be in support of installing speed control.

The process then begins to determine where or not there is 51% support for speed control. If the request is initiated by a resident, then a petition is then circulated by that ‘Contact Resident' to all affected residents. If the request is council initiated and there is no individual resident available to be ‘Contact Resident', the City will conduct a poll to determine level of support on the affected street(s). Both the petition and poll procedures are discussed below:

Petition Procedure

In a resident initiated process, the ‘Contact Resident' will canvas affected residents (as determined by the City). The petition must show that at least 51% of residents have signed the petition, showing their support of speed controls.

Each residents must provide a signature and contact phone number (for verification) as followings:

  • if single family owner occupied: one signature per household;
  • if single family rental unit: require signature from primary resident (tenant who signed lease) and owner (landlord: City will assist in acquiring addresses); and
  • if multi-residential unit, signatures required from each primary resident in each unit (tenant who signed lease) and single signature from each owner (or one of the owner in the case of multiple ownership) of multi-residential unit.

The City will determine the limits of the affected properties in the ‘Study Area'. Each resident within the study area must be contacted. At a minimum, the study area will include all properties that abut the street on which speed control measures at being

considered, and all properties at the intersection of all connecting streets. The City, at it's discretion may include additional properties within the study area. Refer to

Appendix F for sample areas.

All residents within the study area must be contacted and sign the petition if they are in support of speed control measures. If they do not sign showing their support, the word ‘ OPPOSED' must be noted beside their address if they are against installation some or all speed control measures. As long as contact was made at least twice a notation of ‘NO CONTACT' must be made beside their address. If any were marked “NO OPINION', these will be treated as ‘OPPOSED'. The “OPPOSED' notation will assist City staff in determining specific speed hump locations (attempts will be made not to install speed humps in front of properties ‘OPPOSED'). The ‘Contact Resident' has a maximum of 2 months to submit the petition to the City. Any petitions older than 2 months that are submitted to the City will be rejected.

Poll Procedure

In the case where there is no ‘Contact Resident' to conduct the petition, the City will forward a speed control information sheet (included in Appendix C) to each affected resident. The City requires an overall level of support for speed control measure of 51% of affected residents to ensure that residents are involved.

The poll procedure is the same as the petition procedure except that the City will conduct the poll using a mailed or hand delivered questionnaire. As is the case with the petition, 51% support of speed control installation is required.

The City reserves the right to install control measure without resident petition or poll, as circumstance require.

Verification of Petition/Poll

The City validates the petition or poll to ensure that at least 51% of affected residents support speed control. The ‘Contact Resident' must complete and submit a Verification Statement (included in Appendix E), which verified that the signatures collected are valid. The City will randomly select names to verify the support. Falsification of signatures will result in nullification of the petition and the speed control process.

Step 5: Traffic Studies

After it is determined that the requested street meets the initial criteria for speed control, the City will conduct appropriate speed studies while it is conducting the petition/poll process, one of three outcomes of the process will be as follows:

Traffic Studies

Scenario

Study Process Outcome

Result

5A

Speed : 85th percentile speed is 10 km/h Or more over the speed limit

Speed Control Request Process

Continues.

 

Poll: 51% support for speed control

 

5B

Speed : 85th percentile speed is 10 km/h Or more over the speed limit

Street referred for Police traffic

Enforcement.

 

Poll : Less than 51% support for speed control

 

5C

Speed : 85th percentile speed is Less than 10 km/h over the speed limit

Speed Control Request Process

Is concluded and letter to

‘Contact Resident' and/or report

to Council advising that speed

control is not warranted.

 

Poll: Not applicable

 

If the first outcome is achieved (85th over 10Km/h and 51% support), the Speed Control Request Process continues and the City will conduct a traffic volume study (discussed below).

Traffic Volume

Following confirmation that the 85th percentile speed is 10 Km/h or more (Scenario 5A) over the speed limit and 51% support exists, a traffic volume study will be conducted. If the street meets the Scenario 5A and has 3000 or less vehicles per day speed control measures will be appropriate. However, if the traffic volumes exceed 3000 vehicles per day other traffic calming measures may be considered for implementation.

The City may also conduct a review to determine if other traffic studies should be conducted to assess if speed control measures are warranted and/or to assess their effectiveness (Appendix G provides list of potential traffic studies). Speed control measures should be implemented only to address documented safety or traffic issues supported by a traffic engineering review. The effectiveness of other, less intrusive measure, such as signage and enforcement, will be evaluated first.

The engineering review will identify, quantify, and document the existing traffic issues on the street and in the neighbourhood. Issues could include speeding, cut-through traffic, and/or safety. It is important to review existing conditions and determine if there is a measurable problem, rather than a perceived problem. Documented issues can then be used to support the implementation of speed control measures, and to measure their effectiveness if implemented.

Traffic conditions in the neighbourhood will be observed and data collected such as the prevailing traffic speeds and traffic volume levels. As part of the traffic study warrant evaluation, consideration will be given to the reason for the request for speed control and traffic studies will be tailored accordingly (both before and after installation). It should be noted that an external agency/consultant will be required to conduct traffic volume studies.

Step 6: Public Meeting

The City will mail out a notification and advertise in local newspapers (Appendix H provides a sample Public Information Centre notification) inviting all affected residents to attend a public meeting during which the speed control plan be presented.

The plan will show each speed control measure location and show example of signage and pavement markings to be installed. If the requested location meets the criteria for All-way Stop Control, to be installed in conjunction with speed control measures, the AWSC location will also be presented. The information session will include display boards showing all recommended speed control measures with City staff available to answer question and address concerns.

 

Step 7: Report to Council 

A report will be presented to Council for review. The City of Thorold's City Council shall make the final determination as to whether the speed control measures will be installed and included in the budget at the requested location based upon the following factors:

  • Recommendation of the Operations Department as to eligibility of speed control measures as outlined in this Policy;
  • Recommendation of the Operations Department as to the recommended location of specific speed control measures in accordance with the criteria set forth in this Policy.
  • Support of at least 51% of affected residents for the installation of speed control; and
  • Any other criteria and considerations which the Operations Department may deem appropriate to insure the safely of the affected residents as well as the consideration of the best interest of the motoring public, pedestrians, cyclists and transit users.

Ranking of Eligible Streets

A point system will be used to prioritize speed control installation to ensure an equitable distribution of resources within the City of Thorold. Depending on funding availability, location will be selected based on the point system with those locations with the highest points constructed first.

If funding does not permit all locations to be installed in one year, streets would be carried forward to the next year when they would be installed as funding permits. After installation of all eligible locations from past year(s), new locations would then be eligible for installation (highest ranked, installed first).

The following scoring system will be used to rank projects:

Scoring Criteria

Scoring Criteria

Criteria

Maximum

Points

Basis

Speed

60

4 points for every 1km/h that the 85th percentile speed is over the posted/legal speed limit.

Volume

10

Local Streets: 1 point for every 100 vehicles/day

Residential Collector Street: 1 point for every 200 vehicles/day.

Collision History

5

1 point assigned for each speed- related collision during the previous 3 years.

Pedestrian Generators

15

5 points for each type of pedestrian generator within a 250m radius of the outside limits of the requested street (to/from cross streets). Examples

include: school, park, recreation center, retirement residence, neighbourhood convenience store etc.)

Sidewalks

5

5 points assigned if there are no continuous sidewalks on at least one side of the roadway.

Support of Area

Residents in favour of

Speed Control

5

51% to 60% - 1 Point;

61% to 75% - 3 Points; and

Over 75% - 5 Points.

TOTAL

100

 

Speed Control Measures Installation Guidelines

Speed Humps

Speed humps are most often constructed on existing roadways. (i.e. retrofit); however, they may be constructed on new roadways or during resurfacing projects. Upon Council approval, the City notifies property owners of the approximate construction date, and the City constructs the speed humps and installs appropriate warning signs and pavement markings. The City may group speed hump projects together and tender them as a package to be constructed and maintained by the City or outside contractor as the City sees fit.

If unanticipated delays in scheduling the installation of speed humps occur, such that the community input process (petition) occurred more than 24 months prior to the actual project implementation, a new community input process may be initiated in order to validate that current residents are in concurrence with the speed hump project.

The following guidelines should be used in determining the best locations for the installation of proposed speed humps.

Spacing: To be effective speed humps should be installed in a series of at least two speed humps. They should be spaced according to an engineering evaluation of the physical street section as well as traffic operations data. Speed humps should be spaced every 100m to achieve a desired 85th percentile speed of 40km/h.

Pedestrians: Consideration should be given to installing a 7-metre speed hump at crosswalk locations with high pedestrian traffic. These speed humps can serve as raised marked crosswalks and provide a flat surface which is easier to walk on than the 4-metre rounded speed hump while providing vehicle speed control. Design element considerations include the following:

  • The markings must be visible to motorists, especially at night. Inlay tape and thermoplastic are generally recommended for crosswalk pavement markings on 7-metre speed humps.
  • Granite and cobblestone finishes are not recommended because, although aesthetically pleasing, the surface may become slippery when wet, and be difficult to cross for pedestrians who are visually impaired or using wheelchairs.

Cyclists: In general, cyclists do not require extensive special provision. Cyclists may, however, be concerned that the vertical deflection of the speed hump will be uncomfortable and inconvenient and that abrupt slopes could even throw a cyclist from their bicycle. Additional elements that could be considered to accommodate cyclists include:

  • Using a tapered edge before the curb to reduce the likelihood of pedal impact on speed hump. If this gap is too wide, it may promote gutter running by motor vehicles;
  • Using speed humps that are less that 10 centimetres high;
  • Providing adequate warning signs and markings;
  • Ensuring that speed humps are far enough from intersections so cyclists do not have to negotiate speed humps while turning; and
  • On designated bike routes speed humps are not appropriate on streets with vertical grades of more that 5% due to instability they could cause the cyclist.

Intersections: Speed humps should be located at least 30 metres from closest perpendicular extension of intersecting street. Speed humps must be at least 75 metres from traffic signals.

Horizontal curves: Speed humps may be on installed on streets with horizontal curve, but the speed hump itself must not be located within the horizontal curve or on approach to curve: it must be located on tangent sections. Safe stopping sight distance must always be provided.

Sight Distance: The Street must have adequate sight distance to safely accommodate the speed hump as determined by the City of Thorold.

Street Condition: The City will inspect all streets prior to any proposed speed hump construction. The City will determine if the existing street pavement conditions are adequate to support the impact loads caused by the speed humps and if any pavement maintenance is required. If it is determined that improvements or maintenance is required, that work should be completed before speed humps are constructed. If any street construction or repaving projects are scheduled within 2 years, the speed hump installation should be delayed and done in conjunction with the reconstruction project. Temporary speed humps may be considered as an interim measure.

Drainage: Speed humps near drainage catchbasins should be placed just downstream of catchbasin to minimize potential for ponding on uphill edge of speed hump if gutter becomes obstructed by debris.

Curbs: Ideally, the street should have an urban cross-section with standard vertical curb and gutter. On streets with rolled curbs special consideration, such as the installation for posts or bollards, may be given to prevent drivers from going around the speed hump.

Utilities: Speed humps should be located away from manholes and fire hydrants. They should be location in such a way as to avoid conflict with underground utility access to boxes and vaults.

Driveways: Locations immediately adjacent to driveways should be avoided to reduce potential vehicle conflict. Where possible, locate speed humps on the property line between properties for noise abatement and aesthetic reasons. Speed hump may be installed within a driveway extension to maintain an appropriate spacing.

Lighting: To maximize nighttime visibility, locate speed humps close to streetlights.

Bus Stops: Locate speed humps at least 25 metres in advance of bus stop, so as to minimize potential stability problem for passengers standing and preparing to alight from the bus at the bus stop.

Parking: On-street parking can be permitted on speed humps therefore parking removal on or near speed humps is not required.

Other Factors: Other factors such as an unusual safety concern will be taken into consideration along with all other considerations which the City of Thorold deem appropriate.

Final Speed Hump Location: The City of Thorold will determine the final location of all speed humps in accordance with the standards and procedures set forth in this Policy and in accordance with safe engineering practices. The City of Thorold will make every attempt to locate speed humps in front of homes in support of speed humps.

Temporary Speed Humps

The City of Thorold should consider the use of temporary speed humps. The installation of portable speed humps may be possible as a temporary measure until permanent speed humps can be constructed. Depending on timing and the City's construction schedule the City may consider installing temporary speed humps on an interim basis. Portable speed humps may be effective when gauging their impact on speed and/or to confirm the level of community support for the speed humps before committing funds to permanent installation. The location of temporary speed humps will be prioritized when necessary using the same criteria as permanent speed humps. The dimensions of temporary speed humps are as follows:

  • 4.0 metres wide
  • 7.0 metres long (between curbs)
  • 10 centimetres high

 Monitor and Evaluate Effectiveness

Six months or as determined by City staff after installation is completed, the City will evaluate the impact of the project (for example, the extent of traffic speed reduction). Installation of speed control measures could result in traffic diverting to other parallel streets as motorists attempt to avoid the speed humps by traveling on alternate, parallel routes. This possible increase in traffic will be monitored. Volume studied should be conducted on streets where traffic diversion is a possibility both before and after speed humps installation (City will determine which streets should be monitored). Acceptable increases in traffic for parallel streets are as follows:

The maximum increase of daily traffic on any adjacent local residential or residential collector streets that is directly attributed to the installation of the speed humps is:

  • Local Street Maximum Increase: 15% or 150 vehicles in a 24-hour period, whichever is greater; and
  • Residential Collector Maximum Increase: 15% or 300 vehicles in a 24-hour period, whichever is greater.

The City shall take the following measures to ensure that a project will keep within the allowable limits:

  • Projects are planned and designed to avoid unacceptable impacts;
  • Traffic volumes on adjacent local residential streets and residential collector roadways are monitored before and after the project is constructed; and
  • Corrective measures are explored and taken if the allowable limit is exceeded.

Removal of Speed Control Measures

Speed control measures may be removed, at the request of residents provided that at least 51% of support their removal. Speed control measures must be installed for at least 2 years before starting the process to remove them. If speed control measures removed, the subject street must wait at least three years before requesting new speed control measures; at this point the approval process will start over. All speed control measures must be considered for removal, not just one. The City reserves the right to remove speed control measures if it determines that they are ineffective or unsafe, or if they have created a negative impact that cannot be corrected. The City will mail out a notification and advertise in local newspapers informing its decision to remove speed control measures.

The purpose of the speed control program is to restore streets to their intended function. This function is to provide both mobility and accessibility, but in differing combinations, depending

on the specific location and classification of the street. One of the primary reasons speed humps are installed is to increase motorists' awareness of the street's function and thereby reduce vehicular speeds.

The primary function of local residential streets is to provide access to adjacent properties. Local streets are not intended for use as through routes or as important links to move traffic within an area's overall road network. For residential collector streets, access to adjacent properties is balanced by a need to collect and distribute residential traffic traveling into and out of a neighbourhood. As with local residential streets, residential collector streets are generally not intended to be through routes or to move significant volumes of traffic within the road network.

The following definitions were used in determining road classifications to ensure that speed control measures are installed primarily on local streets and may be considered on residential collector streets:

Arterial Street

Service Function – Arterial streets are intended to carry large volumes of all type of traffic moving at medium to high speeds. These streets serve the major traffic flows between the principal areas of traffic generation and also connect to rural arterials and collectors. In urban areas without freeways, arterial streets provide the best quality of traffic service. Arterial streets normally experience average daily traffic volumes of 5,000-30,000 vehicles.

Flow Characteristics – The traffic flow is desirably uninterrupted except at signalized intersections and cross walks. Where signals are closely spaced they should be interconnected and synchronized to minimize the interference to through movements. Parking and unloading should be prohibited where they might affect through movement of traffic, particularly at peak hours.

Example – Collier Road

Major Collector Street

Service Function – Collector streets provide both traffic service and land access. The traffic service function of this type of street is to carry traffic between local and arterial streets. Full access to adjacent properties is generally allowed on collectors. The average daily traffic ranges between 5,000 to12,000 vehicles.

Flow Characteristics – Major collector streets have stop, yield or signalized controls where they intersect more important streets. There are few parking restrictions expect during peak hours when traffic movement may be the most important consideration. There are generally no special pedestrian crossing restrictions, but special crosswalks might be provided where traffic volumes are high. To improve traffic flow, particularly at peak hours, it is sometimes desirable to provide major collector streets with bus bays or turning lanes similar to those provided on arterial streets.

Example – Richmond Street

Residential Collector Street

Service Function – Collector streets provide both traffic service and land access. The traffic service function of this type of street is to carry traffic between local and arterial streets. Full access to adjacent properties is generally allowed on collectors. The average daily traffic ranges between 1,000 and 5,000 vehicles.

Flow Characteristics – Residential collector streets have stop, yield or signalized controls where they intersect more important streets. There are few parking restrictions expect during peak hours when traffic movement may be the most important consideration. There are generally no special pedestrian crossing restrictions.

Example – Confederation Avenue

Local Street

Service Function – The main function of local streets is to provide land access. Direct access is allowed to all abutting properties. Local streets are not intended to move large volumes of traffic. The local street primarily carries only traffic with an origin or destination along its length. It is not intended to carry through traffic other that to immediately adjoining streets.

Flow Characteristics – Local streets have stop, yield or signalized controls where they intersect more important streets. Parking may be restricted to one side on narrow streets. Pedestrian traffic is unrestricted.

Example – Silver Crest Count

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